Friday, October 20, 2006


The sports is the devlopment throughout history teaches us a great deal about social changes, and about the nature of sport itself.There are many modern discoveries in France, Africa, and Australia of cave art from prehistory that provide evidence of ritual ceremonial behaviour. Some of these sources date from over 30,000 years ago, as established by carbon dating. Although there is scant direct evidence of sport from these sources, it is reasonable to extrapolate that there were activities during these times that would fit the modern definition of sport.

There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 4000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a range of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills. Among other sports that originate in Persia are polo and jousting.In Europe, ancient Irish legends show evidence of the ancestor of modern hurling being used as a means of preparing warriors for battle as far back as the 13th century BC.

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Wednesday, October 04, 2006

Nature Medicine

Nature Medicine is an academic journal publishing research articles, reviews, news and commentaries in the biomedical area, including both basic research and early-phase clinical research. Topics covered include cancer, cardiovascular disease, gene therapy, immunology, vaccines and neuroscience. The journal seeks to publish research papers that 'demonstrate novel insight into disease processes, with direct evidence of the physiological relevance of the results.

Founded in 1995, Nature Medicine is published by the Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd, and is one of the rapidly expanding stable of Nature journals. Like other Nature journals, there is no external Editorial Board, with editorial decisions being made by an in-house team, although peer review by external expert referees forms a part of the review process.

Nature Medicine is published monthly. Articles are archived online in text and PDF formats. Material over 6 months old is freely accessible.Its 2005 impact factor was 28.878, making it the highest cited research journal in preclinical medicine. It also is among the highest impact of primary scientific journals. By comparison, the impact factors of general science journals Science and Nature for the same period were 30.927 and 29.273, respectively.

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