Thursday, October 25, 2007

Printer Driver

On UNIX systems, printer drivers are typically implemented as filters.On MS-DOS, there have been no system-wide printer drivers; every application was shipped with its own printer drivers, which were fundamentally descriptions of printer commands. Printers, too, have been supplied with drivers for the most accepted applications. In additions, applications incorporated tools for editing printer description, in case there was no ready driver.

On Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems, printer drivers create a part of GDI. Programs then use the similar standard APIs to draw text and pictures both on screen and on paper. Printers which use GDI natively are commonly referred to as Winprinters and considered problematic for other operating systems.Win32 APIs also permit applications to send data directly to spooler, bypassing the printer driver; however, few applications actually use this option.Printer drivers should not be confused with print spoolers, that queue print jobs and send them to printer one after the other.

On UNIX systems, printer drivers are frequently named front end and printer spoolers back end of the printing system.Backends are also used to determinate the available devices. On startup each backend is asked for a list of devices it supports, and any information that is available

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Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Early Stages of a pregnant woman and her health

Pregnancy is not an easy job for a woman. Starting from conception to birth, a woman's body carries out the most miraculous process of fertilization, implantation and the maturity and growth of her baby (or babies). Her body is her baby's dwelling place for the next nine months (or around 40 weeks) and the occurrences of pregnancy turn into a journey of many new physical feelings. Whether it is first, second, third (or more) pregnancy, her body will respond in a different way to each individual pregnancy. So health of a pregnant woman is very important to be taken care of.

Throughout the first 12 weeks of pregnancy called the '1st trimester’, a woman's body adjust to present a fostering and protective environment for her baby to grow and develop. Seldom, the early signs of pregnancy can make a woman feel puzzled. This may be for the reason that many of the physical signs of in the early hours of pregnancy such as enlarged tender breasts, sensitivity of tiredness, overstuffed and perhaps experiencing spasms and/or pelvic uneasiness can be considered as normal pre-menstrual signs. In all these stages the health of the woman declines because she is not only feeding herself, also her little developing fetus.

They may also sense disgusted or sick, due to morning sickness. It is not unusual to feel unsure about what is 'normal' during the early stages of pregnancy development, and unfamiliar signs or sensations may trigger concerns about the health, of her and baby. It’s been proved by the Gynecologists that every woman's body will react in a different way to being pregnant. Many women find their early pregnancy symptoms very difficult to cope with, both at work and generally.

Due to continuous vomiting and nourishing the fetus the pregnant woman may be exhausted very easily. She has to constantly keep her energetic by maintaining a healthy diet schedule as prescribed by the physicians. She can have more fresh green vegetables and fruit juices to make her feel fresh and energetic. It’s always significant to make sure that she avoids drinking and smoking because whatever she has will be directly absorbed by the baby. Once the fetus starts developing she has to get primed for all the obstacles she has to experience throughout pregnancy. Many psychologists predict that a healthy pregnancy is not only from taking care of the nutrition for the pregnant women, more than that she has to be taken care from all the hassles in her family. It’s the duty of a loving husband to caress her comfortably and keep her happy always throughout the gestation period. This will not only make the woman feel happy and hopeful it will directly lead to the good development of the fetus.

Halloween Costumes

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

A Brief History of the Internet

By default, any ultimate history of the Internet must be short, since the Internet in one form or another has only been in reality for less than 30 years. The first iteration of the Internet was launched in 1971 with a community showing in early on 1972. This new network, recognized as ARPANET. It means Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was very ancient by today's standards, but an objective in computer interactions.
ARPANET was based upon the design concepts of Larry Roberts (MIT) and was fleshed out at the first ACM colloquium, held in Gaithersburg, TN in 1966, although RFPs weren't sent out until mid 1968.
The responsibility of security in 1969 commissioned ARPANET, and the first node was created at the University of California in Los Angeles, administration on a Honeywell DDP-516 mini-computer. The second node was recognized at Standford University and launched on October first of the same year. The third node was situated at the University of California, Santa Barbara November 1, 1969 and the fourth was opened at the University of Utah in December.

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Thursday, October 11, 2007


Linux is a computer operating system like unix,windows etc.. Linux is one of the most famous examples of free software and open source development; its underlying source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone.The Linux kernel was first released to the community on 17 September 1991, for the Intel x86 PC architecture. The kernel was enlarged with system utilities and libraries from the GNU project to create a usable operating system, which later led to the alternate term GNU/Linux.Linux is now packaged for different uses in Linux distributions, which contain the sometimes customized kernel along with a variety of other software packages tailored to different requirements.

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Tuesday, October 09, 2007

Traffic light

A traffic light or traffic signal is a signalling device positioned at a road junction or pedestrian crossing to indicate when it is safe to drive, ride or walk, using a universal color code.Traffic lights for usual vehicles or pedestrians always have two main lights, a red one that means stop and a green one that means go. Generally, the red light contains some orange in its hue, and the green light contains some blue, to provide some support for people with red-green color blindness. In most countries there is also a yellow (or amber) light, which when on and not flashing means stop if able to do so securely. In some systems, a flashing amber means that a motorist may go in advance with care if the road is clear, giving way to pedestrians and to other road vehicles that may have precedence. A flashing red effectively means the same as a regular stop sign. There may be additional lights (usually a green arrow or "filter") to allow turns (called a lead light in the U.S., because it is usually leading the main green light).

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Tuesday, October 02, 2007


Advertising is a traditional Society. This paper shows the difficulties of promoting products in conventional societies such as traditional Muslim countries. Advertising is a major marketing implement for organizations to sell their products and services. The paper argues that in conservative societies however, it is virtually impossible to convey message in a smart way. This paper discusses the Saudi society and the approaches to advertising as compared to the United States. It discusses advertising mediums such as television commercial and the internet and shows how messages put across to the consumer differ between the two countries, based on cultural demands.
Extensive hard work is made to keep the society segregated so that no mingling or socializing for the two is possible. As a result, educational institutes are segregated and the place of work does not employ women much. There are harsh laws regarding women covering themselves, traveling with a male relation and driving. In addition, media, along with the Internet, is heavily concealed for any trace of irreligious content.

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