Friday, June 29, 2007

Three Gorges Dam

The Three Gorges Dam spans the Yangtze River on Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei region, China. Construction began in 1994. It will be the major hydroelectric dam in the world, more than five times the size of the Hoover Dam. The reservoir began filling on June 1, 2003, and will occupy the current position of the scenic Three Gorges area, between the cities of Yichang, Hubei; and Fuling, Chongqing. Structural work was finished on May 20, 2006, nine months ahead of schedule. However, some generators still have to be installed and the dam is not expected to become fully equipped until 2009.

Three Gorges Dam, downstream side, 26 July 2004As with many dams, there is controversy over the operating cost and benefits of the Three Gorges Dam. Although there are economic profit from flood control and hydroelectric power, there are also concerns concerning the future of over 1.9 million people who will be displaced by the flood waters, the loss of some valuable archaeological and cultural sites, as well as the effects on the environment. It is believed that the dam was a contributing part in the extinction of the Yangtze River Dolphin.

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Sunday, June 24, 2007

Russian Ground Forces

The Russian Ground Forces are the land forces of the Russian Federation, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. While the Russian Ground Forces in their present form are only fourteen years old, Russian officials trace their antecedents' history during the Imperial Russian era back to the time of Kievan Rus. Since 1992 the Ground Forces have had to withdraw thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while being extensively committed to the Chechen wars and peacekeeping and other operations in the Soviet successor states.

Since 1991 inability to allow the new strategic circumstances, a crippling lack of funds, and the wasting away of the Russian people's belief in the Armed Forces have led to a steady decline in forces capacity. Professionalisation is now steadily taking place, but there is little hope for a rapid grows in effectiveness. Alexander Golts, a long-time Russian military columnist, describes the problems: "Since 1999 the defense budget has grown more than three times—rising from 109 billion rubles to 346 billion. However, no encouraging changes have come about: the level of combat readiness and discipline is just as low as it was few years ago.

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Tuesday, June 19, 2007


Wallpaper is material which is used to coat and decorate the interior walls of home, offices, and other buildings; it is one part of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are place onto a wall using wallpaper glue.

Wallpapers can appear either plain so it can be decorated or with patterned graphics. Wallpaper printing techniques contain surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, and rotary printing. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, which can be used to tile an countless plane. All artificial wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. A single model can be issued in several different color ways.

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Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Public transport

Public transport, public transportation, public travel or mass transit comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not tour in their own vehicles. While it is generally taken to include rail and bus services, wider definitions would comprise scheduled airline services, ship, taxicab services etc. – any system that transports members of the universal public. A further restriction that is sometimes practical is that it must take place in shared vehicles that would bar taxis that are not shared-ride taxis.

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Friday, June 08, 2007


Weather most frequently results from temperature differences from one planet to another. On large scales, temperatures differences arise mainly as areas closer to Earth's equator get more energy per unit area from the Sun than do regions nearer to Earth's poles. On local scales, temperature differences can arise because different surfaces have opposed physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or moisture content.

Surface temperature differences in roll cause pressure differences. A hot surface heats the air over it and the air expands, lowering the air pressure. The resulting parallel pressure rise accelerates the air from high to low pressure, creating wind, and Earth's rotation then causes curvature of the pour via the Coriolis Effect. The strong temperature contrast among polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet flow. Most weather systems in the mid-latitudes are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Weather systems in the tropics are caused by different processes, such as monsoons shower systems.

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Sunday, June 03, 2007


Software basically is the distinct image or representation of physical or material position that constitute configuration to or functional identity of a machine, usually a computer. As a substance of memory, software in principle can be changed without the alteration to the static paradigm of the hardware thus without the remanufacturing thereof. generally software is of an algorithmic form which translates into being to a progression of machine instructions. Some software, however, is of a relational form which translate into being the map of a recognition network.

Software is a program that enables a computer to achieve a specific task, as contrasting to the physical components of the system . This include application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to achieve a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run suitably, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.

The term "software" was first used in this intellect by John W. Tukey in 1957. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer program. The perception of reading different sequences of instructions into the memory of a apparatus to control computations was invented by Charles Babbage as part of his difference engine. The theory that is the source for most modern software was first projected by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem.

Practical computer systems partition software into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the division is subjective, and often blurred.

* System software is one of the major class helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes working systems, device drivers, analytical tools, servers, windowing systems, utilities and more. The intention of systems software is to protect the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of theexacting computer complex being use, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory procedure as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.

* Programming software usually provide tools to support a programmer in writing computer programs and software with different programming languages in a more suitable way.The tools comprise text editors, compilers, interpreters, linkers, debuggers, and so on, An incorporated development environment merge those tools into a software bundle, and a programmer may not need to type various command for compiling, interpreter, debugging, tracing, and etc., because the IDE typically has an sophisticated graphical user interface, or GUI.

* Application software allows humans to complete one or more explicit tasks. typical applications include manufacturingautomation, business software, educational software, medical software, databases and computer games. Businesses are possibly the biggest users of application software, but approximately every field of human action now uses some form of application software. It is used tocomputerizeall sorts of functions.

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